Considerations in the Use of Base Fertilizer

The period with the largest production area in our country's agriculture is the autumn seed planting period. In this period, BASE FERTILIZER application should be made on perennial plants such as wheat and barley, canola, winter vegetables, greenhouse cultivation and in some regions fruit-vineyard-olive.

The amount and type of Base Fertilizer should be determined by performing soil analysis according to the plant to be grown, the amount of product to be taken per decare or per tree. As an example, it is wrong to apply the same amount of base fertilizer to a field with 300-350 kg of wheat product per decare and the same amount of base fertilizer to a field that receives 600-700 kg or more of product per decare. In addition, the amount of base fertilizer that should be given to bread wheat and durum wheat, and feed barley and brewery barley is also different. Likewise, the base fertilizer requirements of wine-for-table-drying grapes, oil and table olive trees, industrial tomatoes for paste (vegetables) and table tomatoes (vegetables) are also different.

Base Fertilizer should be applied 2-3 weeks before sowing seeds, before planting seedlings or together with seed sowing in single-year plants, and 2-3 weeks before the budding of the shoots (water walking in the words of the producer) in perennial plants (such as fruit-vineyard-olive-nut). In some regions, base fertilization can also be applied in autumn, as perennial plants cannot enter the garden due to rainfall. However, there is no nitrogen in the base fertilizer to be given in this period, or composite fertilizers containing less nitrogen than phosphorus and potassium should be used as base fertilizer.

Base Fertilizer application is generally done in two ways:

- Application with the Spreading Method (with fertilizer spreader tools, by hand)

-    Tape (scratch) method (application with seeder)

Regardless of the method applied, the application (mixing) depth of the fertilizers to the soil should be mixed with the soil to be 5-6 cm below the seed sowing depth. The main reason for this is that phosphorus, especially as a plant nutrient, can go down to 5-6 cm soil depth (root zone) with precipitation and irrigation. Some producers (especially cotton producers) do not apply base fertilizer before or together with planting because the soil conditions are not suitable, and they apply base fertilizer as a band to a depth close to the soil surface after emergence (after germination). This is very wrong. In this type of application, the plant can benefit very little from the applied phosphorus and potassium in that development period. This type of application causes great product loss. Base fertilizer application depth should be adjusted according to the soil depth where the capillary roots of the plant to be grown are the most dense. The depth of application of Sole Fertilizer is made with combined seeders (seeders) especially in the hands of wheat-barley producers. However, although the fertilizer hopper and the seed hopper are the same in this type of equipment, after the settings for the amount of seed and fertilizer to be given per decare are made, the seed and fertilizer are fed into the soil together through the same pipe (ax). Fertilizer and seed should never come into direct contact. Because fertilizers are chemically a salt. When the fertilizer dissolves in the soil water, it may cause salinity and damage the germination of the seed it is in contact with. For this reason, in this type of combined seeder, seed and fertilizer should be fed into the soil through separate pipes. The second mistake in this type of application is that the seed and fertilizer are given at the same depth. For this reason, if the ax from which the seed flows and the ax from which the fertilizer flows are separate, the depth of the fertilizer ax should be adjusted to enter 5-6 cm deeper than the seed. As the base fertilizer application method depends on the fertilizing device owned by the manufacturer, it is necessary to determine the fertilization method according to the following points.

Necessary conditions for choosing the sprinkling method:

-    In barren lands,

-    If the capillary roots of the plant grown spread almost all over the field,

-    Phosphorus and potassium applied to the soil do not undergo fixation (temporarily unavailable),

- If the soil is poor in terms of lime,

-    If the amount of fertilizer to be given per decare is high,

-    If it is a plant that is planted very often (such as spinach-paddy), spreading method fertilization should be preferred.

Necessary conditions for choosing the band (stripe) method of fertilization:

-    In wide and row-like plantings, fruit trees, vineyards and olive trees,

-    If the capillary roots of the plant grown do not cover all parts of the soil,

-    If the fertility of the soil is high,

- If the phosphorus and potassium applied to the soil are fixed in a short time,

- In very calcareous soils,

-    In case of giving less fertilizer in kg per decare compared to the spreading method, it is necessary to prefer the band-type fertilization method.

No matter which method is applied, it is a big mistake to cultivate without using BASE FERTILIZER. The high fertilizer prices, especially due to climate and soil conditions or international effects, push some producers to grow using only top fertilizer without using base fertilizer. In terms of soil fertility, it is a big mistake to plant without using any fertilizer. For whatever reason, it would be better to use a little less fertilizer at the rate of 10-20% instead of using any Base Fertilizer. The reason for this is that the fertilizers applied to the soil have an effect on the next year. 30-40% of nitrogen fertilizers, 40-50% of potassium fertilizers and 70% of phosphorus fertilizers remain in the soil and the plant can benefit from these nutrients the next year. For this reason, it is useful to give a little bit of fertilizer instead of not applying any base fertilizer. What is right is that the producers make a correct and balanced fertilization program according to the soil analysis and the needs of the plant. Even if fertilizer prices are cheap, producers use less Base Fertilizer than the plant needs in our country. This causes great product loss. Water and fertilizer are the factors that most affect the amount of product to be taken per decare in all plant production. The use of balanced fertilizers together with precipitation or irrigation increases the amount of product by at least 50%. Regardless of the fertilizer price, the increase in the product and the effect on the quality of the fertilizer always provides more profit to the producer. In addition, when the farmers make a cost calculation, they use the feces of cattle or small cattle, which are called animal manure, in the field. As a result of the use of fertilizers in this way, the rate of grass in the fields increases and the farmers have to struggle with weed again. In addition, due to the excess acid content of the animal manure, if it is thrown into the soil in large amounts, it affects the plant growth and damages the crops.

Fertilizer is the energy source of the plant, its bread, its food. Despite the efficiency-increasing effect of fertilizer, using excessive and unbalanced fertilizers does not increase the product and causes a decrease in the product. HDF FERTILIZER is always with the manufacturer in the use of correct and balanced fertilizers.